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31.

Four usual dice are thrown on the ground. The total of numbers on the top faces of these four dice is 13 as the top faces showed 4, 3, 1 and 5 respectively. What is the total of the faces touching the ground?

In a usual dice, the sum of the numbers on any two opposite faces is always 7. Thus, 1 is opposite 6, 2 is opposite 5 and 3 is opposite 4.

Consequently, when 4, 3, 1 and 5 are the numbers on the top faces, then 3, 4, 6 and 2 respectively are the numbers on the face touching the ground. The total of these numbers = 3 + 4 + 6 + 2 = 15.

From figures (i), (ii) and (iii), we conclude that 3, 4, 2 and 6 lie adjacent to 5. Therefore, 1 must lie opposite 5.

From figures (i), (iii) and (iv), we conclude that 4, 5, 6 and 1 lie adjacent to 3. Therefore, 2 must lie opposite 3. Now, we have 1 opposite 5 and 2 opposite 3. Hence, 4 must lie opposite 6.

Two positions of a dice with 1 to 6 dots on its sides are shown below. If the dice is resting on the side with three dots, what will be number of dots on the side at the top?

From figures (i) and (ii) we conclude that 2, 6 and 4 dots appear adjacent to 3 dots. Hence, either 1 or 5 dots may appear opposite 3 dots. Thus, if the dice is resting on the side with three dots, then the number of dots on the side at the top is either 1 or 5.

A cube has six different symbols drawn over its six faces. The symbols are dot, circle, triangle, square, cross and arrow. Three different positions of the cube are shown in figures X, Y, and Z.

From figures X and Y, we conclude that dot, circle, square and cross lie adjacent to the triangle. Therefore, the arrow must lie opposite the triangle. From figures X and Z, we conclude that dot, triangle, arrow and cross lie adjacent to the circle. Therefore, the square must lie opposite the circle. Thus, the arrow lies opposite the triangle, the square lies opposite the circle and consequently, the cross lies opposite the dot.

As analysed above, the cross lies opposite the dot.

From figures (i), (ii) and (iv), we conclude that 6, 4,1 and 2 dots appear adjacent to 3 dots. Clearly, there will be 5 dots on the face opposite the face with 3 dots.

Number 1 is common to both the positions of the dice. We assume the dice in fig. (ii) to be rotated so that 1 dot moves to the top face (i.e. face V as per activity 1) i.e. to the same position as in fig. (i) and 2 and 4 dots move to the faces hidden behind the faces with 3 and 5 dots respectively. Thus, the combined figure will have 1 dot on the Top (i.e. on face V), 5 dots on Front face (i.e. on face I), 3 dots on RHS face (i.e. face II), 4 dots on the Rear face (i.e. face III) and 2 dots on the LHS face (i.e. face IV). Clearly, 3 dots lie on the face opposite the face having 2 dots. Therefore, when there are 2 dots at the bottom, the number of dots at the top will be 3.